I received a Batchelor of Science degree from Penn State University in 1957, just prior to entering the Navy as a Seaman Apprentice Officer Candidate. After commissioning as an Ensign in October of that year, I remained a career Navy officer for the next 27 years, until 1984.

Included in my Navy career was an academic assignment to the University of Wisconsin in Madison, from which I was awarded the degree of Master of Arts in Journalism in 1968.
I'm also a 1982 graduate of the Italian language course as the Defense Language Institute at Monterey, CA.

After serving on the faculty of the U.S. Naval War
College in Newport, RI., ( 1982 - 1984 ) I returned to civilian life as a research scholar at the University of London ( London School of Economics ), from which I received a PhD in Political Science in 1988.